By Speakman J
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Additional info for An introduction to the electronic theory of valency
Many investors consider bonds to be long-term holdings compared to stocks. Although that might reflect investment behavior, it’s an ironic way to represent the inherent nature of each security. After all, bonds have finite lifespans, but equities are perpetual. That’s why you could inherit stocks that were purchased 75 years ago, but not bonds. A bond’s predetermined lifespan is commonly known as its maturity. Most bond maturities range between 2 and 30 years, although there are some 40-year and even some 100-year bonds outstanding.
The trader profits from the spread, which in other businesses is called the margin. Bonds are commonly issued in multiples of $1,000, also known as par value, or face value. For instance, if your portfolio includes 100 bonds, the total par value would be $100,000 (100 bonds × $1,000 par). When a bond trades equal to its par value, it’s said to be trading at par. However, since market prices are not static, bonds seldom trade exactly at par. 1). Under stable market conditions, bond prices typically range within 10% of their $1000 par value.
Zeros are issued at a deep discount to par because the money you receive at maturity includes the principal and the total interest you’ve earned. For example, although coupon-paying bonds are issued at $1,000, a zero could be issued at, say, $650. Think of it this way—if the bond were instead issued at par, the total amount repaid at maturity would be far greater than par value. ” Unfortunately, it’s not invisible enough—accrued interest from most zero bonds is taxed as if you had actually received it that year.