By Manekji Bejanji Pithawalla
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Extra info for An Introduction to Karachi: Its Environs and Hinterland
An individual animal can make billions of diﬀerent antibody molecules, each with a distinct antigen binding site. Each antibody can recognize its antigen with great speciﬁcity. Antibodies defend us against infection in at least two diﬀerent ways: (i) antibody and antigen aggregates are ingested by phagocytic cells (cells that clean up cellular debris); and (ii) antibody-coated bacteria or viruses are killed by special proteins in the blood. Antibodies are made by a class of white blood cells, called B cell lymphocytes or B cells.
The two phosphate ions are linked to the AMP molecule by two high energy phosphoanhydride bonds. One or both of these bonds can be readily hydrolyzed to yield adenosine diphosphate (ADP) or adenosine monophosphate (AMP) and both the reactions are energetically favorable. We are now ready to present an example of a coupled reaction. 1 Consider the condensation reaction involved in the formation of sucrose: glucose + fructose −→ sucrose. 5 kcal/mole. Since this number is positive, this reaction will not occur by itself.
11. From Fig. 11 we note that the resulting molecule has a well-deﬁned directionality: an amino group on one end and a carboxyl group on the other. Hence, it is possible to attach additional amino acids to the existing chain via further condensation reactions. The ﬁnal chain that results will also have an amino group at one end (called the amino terminus or N-terminus) and a carboxyl group at the other end (called the carboxyl terminus or C-terminus). In Fig. 11, the four atoms in the box form a rigid planar unit so that there is no rotation about the C-N bond.