By Michel Soustelle
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Additional resources for An introduction to chemical kinetics
This gradient is the cause of movement of the gas molecules towards the catalyst, which is called a diffusion; – adsorption of the reactants on the catalyst surface; – the catalytic act, which is the chemical reaction itself that also occurs at the catalyst’s surface; – desorption of the gases produced at the catalyst’s surface; – interdiffusions of gases produced at the catalyst’s surface toward the volume of gas and away from the solid. In the same way as for the reagents, but in reverse, the reaction creates a partial pressure gradient of the products that are produced at the catalyst’s surface, which leads to diffusion of these products from the surface.
36]. 9. Factors influencing reaction speeds Many variables can influence the speed of a reaction. Their number cannot be known a priori, so they need to be determined by experience. The two main variables are: – temperature; – concentrations (or partial pressures of gas) of reactants, products or catalysts. 1. Influence of temperature The influence of temperature on the speed of reactions was found very early on in chemistry. R5] between nitric oxide and oxygen in order to obtain nitrogen dioxide has a speed that decreases as the temperature increases).
R3c] The aforementioned examples are mechanisms that are specific to a reaction. However, there are templates of mechanisms that are common to a significant number of similar reactions. 3. R5] We can also mention electrophilic substitution reactions, which are divided into two classes: SE1 in two steps and SE2 in a single step. 3. Reaction intermediates Once the principle that breaks down a reaction into elementary steps is accepted, it is clear that apart from the reactants – such as catalysts and inhibitors – and the products eventually formed, new species are involved in these elementary steps, as shown by the examples we have given.