By D. S. Ballantine, Jr.,Robert M. White,S. J. Martin, et al.Elsevier|Elsevier Science||Academic PressAdult NonfictionScience, TechnologyLanguage(s): EnglishOn sale date: 13.05.2011Street date: 21.10.1996
Written by way of an interdisciplinary crew of specialists from either and academia, Acoustic Wave Sensors offers an in-depth examine the present kingdom of acoustic wave units and the scope in their use in chemical, biochemical, and actual measurements, in addition to in engineering purposes. as a result inherent interdisciplinary functions of those units, this ebook should be helpful for the chemist and biochemist attracted to the use and improvement ofthese sensors for particular purposes; engineer concerned with the layout and development of those units; the chemical engineer and the biotechnologist drawn to utilizing those units for method tracking and keep watch over; and the sensor group at large.
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Extra info for Acoustic Wave Sensors. Theory, Design, & Physico-Chemical Applications
Three are academics (Ballantine, White, and Zellers); three work for the U. S. Government (Frye, Martin, and Ricco); and one started and runs his own sensor systems business (Wohltjen). We hope that this diversity is enriching. The remaining chapters have the following functions and contents: Chapter 2 introduces the acoustic principles common to all the devices; Chapter 3 describes the devices in detail and shows how specific input quantities affect the characteristics of the propagation path; Chapter 4 examines the ways these sensors can be used to determine materials properties; Chapter 5 looks at the chemical and biological applications of these sensors; and Chapter 6 deals with practical sensor systems.
One can apply this concept to calculate the wave velocity: an acoustic wave propagates at the velocity for which peak kinetic energy density exactly equals peak strain energy density. 44) This agrees with the velocity found by solving the wave equation. It is instructive to calculate the electrical energy density for this problem. 2, the only non-zero component of E is Ex. 46) The last term is approximately equal to K2 when K2 1. Thus, the electromechanical coupling coefficient (K2) has a second interpretation: K2is approximately equal to the ratio of peak electrical energy density to peak strain energy density.
32) while u1 and u2 are zero. 33) The stiffness parameter c55 has, in effect, been increased by the factor (1 +K2) — an effect known as piezoelectric stiffening. 34) Piezoelectric stiffening increases the wave velocity from that obtained in the non-piezoelectric case. Wave velocity is given by v= (c′55/ρ)1/2. 6% velocity increase for the wave considered in ZnO. The coupling factor K2 is a measure of how strongly the electrical potential and mechanical displacements associated with a wave interact.