By Robert V. Giglia R.T., R.D.M.S., Kara L. Mayden R. T., R.D.M.S., Norbert Gleicher M. D. (auth.)
Real-time ultrasonography has entered place of work perform in obstetrics and gynecology. With expanding numbers of sonography platforms getting into the ambulatory workplace environment, obstetric sonography at a regimen point (level I) has principally been the exact quarter. fresh advancements in gynecologic real-time sonography have, notwithstanding, considerably enlarged the sector of applicability of sonographic gear in an workplace surroundings. The very quick progress of follicular sonography in infertility overview and administration has made real-time sonography of accelerating significance to the gynecologic practitioner. In workplace settings just like the authors', gynecologic workplace sonography represents as regards to 50% of all ordered sonography. This instruction manual of place of work sonography in obstetrics and gynecology was once conceived to mirror those alterations in perform styles. This quantity isn't really intended to exchange regular sonography texts for the full-time sonographer yet is as a substitute directed towards the practising obstetrician/gynecologist who makes use of real-time sonography within the place of work atmosphere in the framework of day-by-day perform. Technical reviews have been hence limited to a minimal, with useful suggestion and photographic examples taking their position. lots of the sonographic real-time photographs have been retrieved from the authors' personal documents. despite the fact that, a few have been bought during the generosity of acquaintances and co-workers, for which we wish to increase acknowledgment and appreciation. related appreciation is prolonged to Dr. Haim Elrad and Dr. Jari Friberg, who additionally participated within the editorial strategy; to Sheila Martin, who played fantastically as our editorial assistant, a such a lot tough accountability; and to Hilary Evans, our editor at Plenum Publishing Corporation.
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Additional info for A Practical Guide to Real-Time Office Sonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Jeanty P, Kirkpatrick C, Dramaix-Wilmet, et al: Ultrasonic evaluation of fetal limb growth. Radiology 1981;140:165. 5. Callen PW (ed): Ultrasonography in Obstetrics and Gynecology. Philadelphia, WB Saunders, 1983. 1. • Biparietal Diameter Parameters for an adequate fetal BPD are as follows: The level of BPD should be obtained below the level of the lateral ventricles and just above the level of the orbits and cerebral peduncles. ) o The shape of BPD should be oval. o Midline should be equidistant from both lateral borders.
1). • Placental localization during the second trimester will become necessary in conjunction with genetic amniocentesis (see Chapter 6) and mid-trimester bleeding (see Chapter 16 on placenta previa and abruptio placentae). 2. 44 THE PLACENTA Placental Anatomy • The chorionic plate, whenever clearly visible, should represent an increased linear echogenic structure running uninterrupted at the fetal side of the placenta. • The basal plate of the placenta should also run as an uninterrupted echogenic line.
2. NORMAL ANATOMY OF THE FETAL KIDNEY Longitudinal scan of the fetal kidney (K) demonstrating the normal increase in echogenicity of the pelvio-caliceal complex. Spine (S). 2. The Fetal Bladder • The bladder serves as a landmark due to its position in the pelvis. It is sonographically visible when filled with fetal urine. Visualization of the bladder therefore confirms at least unilateral renal function (see Fig. 3). • The fetal bladder should be routinely visualized after 20 weeks gestational age.