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Along with Canada) was standing triumphant, virtually unscathed in a world in which most advanced countries were prostrate and in ashes. Its scientific preeminence was taken for granted, and most Americans thought of computing machines as almost a national monopoly. They had largely forgotten the tradition of European scientific superiority that had been generally accepted only a decade earlier. What is now known about ENIGMA and the Zuse machines should help to dispel this illusion. By 1955, our country was entering an era when large-scale scientific computing came into widespread industrial use, having been up to then largely dedicated to problems of military science.

The symposium was all about artificial intelligence, the computer and the brain, which is much more fascinating to the average person than solving the Laplace equation! Some will remember, and I hope that an honest history will be written sometime, about McCulloch-Pitts theories and the widespread belief that the brain was some kind of a triggered neural network with all-or-none firing, and all that. The deep preprocessing and peripheral processing capabilities of the human brain were overlooked by the seers and prophets of the time.

1978). " Hutchinson, London. [Also McGraw-Hill, New York, 1979,] PIONEERING WORK ON COMPUTERS AT BLETCHLEY 45 Randell, B. (1976). The Colossus, this volume. Rohwer, J. (1977). " Naval Institute Press, Annapolis, Maryland. Stevenson, W. (1976). " Harcourt, New York. Winterbotham, F. W. (1974). " Harper, New York. DEPARTMENT OF STATISTICS VIRGINIA POLYTECHNIC INSTITUTE A N D STATE UNIVERSITY BLACKSBURG, VIRGINIA A HISTORY OF COMPUTING IN THE TWENTIETH CENTURY The COLOSSUS B. RANDELL In October 1975, after an official silence lasting 32 years, the British Government made a set of captioned photographs of COLOSSUS available at the Public Record Office.

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