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4 one should also point out that: 1. The large spread in the statistical distribution of energies of thermal motion guarantees that at physiological temperatures some molecules always have sufficient energy to break the strongest weak bonds [32]. ß 2006 by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. 4 Bond and Thermal Energies Type of Bond Covalent Van der Waals Hydrogen Ionica Avg. 027 For ionic groups of organic molecules such as COOÀ, NH33À in aqueous solution. a 2. The average lifetime of a weak bond is only a fraction of a second.

Thus, solvents with higher relative dielectric constant «r, indicating higher inherent electric dipole moment per unit volume (P), solvate ions more strongly («r ¼ 1 þ P=[«o E], where E is the electric field applied during the measurement of «r). For example, H2O with «r % 80 solvates more strongly than methanol with «r % 33. , molecular components which have an inherent dipole moment, such as—C=O, —NH, or —NO2. Details of the process are discussed in texts on electrochemistry [30,31]. In biological processes not only chemical ionization and solvation of ionic compounds, but also all kinds of chemical reaction take place.

Positive effects of exposure were obtained in another group of studies where a 2–150 mT SMF exposure of macrophages and ConA-stimulated lymphocytes from the C57BL/6 mice cultured ex vivo led to increased intracellular Ca2þ levels [13]. This was accompanied by a decrease in phagocytic uptake of fluorescent latex microspheres by macrophages. 7 mT generated by an NMR apparatus [53]. The authors monitored movements of Ca2þ, cell proliferation, and the production of cytokines following 1 h exposure in cells treated by the EMF fields alone or cells additionally activated by 5 mg/ml of PHA immediately before the exposure.

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