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By Alan Campbell Wares

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Illustrations of this pattern are: smárk 'ear', smá'k 'to sleep', hmá' 'quail', Qpirk 'hard'. » IJAL, 23 (1957), p. 22. 30 THE PHONEMES OF WALAPAI For bisyllabic words the predominant phonotactic pattern is CV(C)CV(')C(C) as in civOP 'liver', madi'l 'thigh', Bampfrrk 'a fly', θατάρ 'five'. Another common phonotactic pattern for words of more than one syllable is (V)CV(")C(V), where an unstressed vowel may occur initially or finally, as illustrated by yáki 'cradle', ucP 'charcoal'. The final unstressed vowel, when not a suffixial morpheme, is frequently represented by a non-phonemic release which is generally heard as a mid central vocoid (shwa), and which may be characteristic of overcareful pronunciation.

Examples of both phonemes: /x/ xumáy 'man's son', xam'úlv 'ashes', óxk 'cough', saxúk 'ten', copâx 'hill' ; /x w / xwétam 'red', milxwé 'skunk'. The bilabial /v/ and interdental ¡4/ voiced spirants resemble the corresponding voiced spirants in Mohave. Examples: /ν/ νά 'house', vv 'stone', avé 'snake', xavik 'two', JM'v 'tobacco' ;/4/dáwk 'to have', ίάό 'eye', masaèèk 'to frighten', savœd ( < Sp. cebada) 'barley'. 36 THE PHONEMES OF MARICOPA Maricopa nasal phonemes are similar to the corresponding phonemes of Mohave.

THE PHONEMES OF COCOPA The segmental phonemes of Cocopa are : Consonants : Semiconsonants : Vowels: ρ t t s s m η 1 1 r c k s χ ny ly kw xw y i e w u a Cocopa has fewer stops than Walapai, Mohave, or Maricopa. Like Walapai, it has a retroflex /t/ but lacks the palatalized velar and the back velar stops of the languages previously described ; in cognate words the corresponding phoneme in Cocopa is /k/. The affricated stop /c/ does not generally correspond to the affricated stop phonemes in the other languages, but to the alveolar stop.

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