Download A brief history of computing by Gerard O'Regan PDF

By Gerard O'Regan

This full of life and interesting textual content lines the most important advancements in computation – from 3000 B.C. to the current day – in an easy-to-follow and concise demeanour. themes and contours: perfect for self-study, delivering many pedagogical gains reminiscent of chapter-opening key subject matters, bankruptcy introductions and summaries, workouts, and a thesaurus; offers exact details on significant figures in computing, equivalent to Boole, Babbage, Shannon, Turing, Zuse and Von Neumann; reports the background of software program engineering and of programming languages, together with syntax and semantics; discusses the development of synthetic intelligence, with extension to such key disciplines as philosophy, psychology, linguistics, neural networks and cybernetics; examines the influence on society of the creation of the non-public computing device, the area vast net, and the advance of cell phone expertise; follows the evolution of a couple of significant expertise businesses, together with IBM, Microsoft and Apple.

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Plaintext) involves looking up each letter in the plaintext and writing down the corresponding cipher letter. For example the encryption of ‘summer solstice’ involves: Plaintext: Summer Solstice Cipher Text vxpphu vrovwleh The decryption involves the reverse operation: that is, for each cipher letter, the corresponding plaintext letter is identified from the table. 23 The origin of the word ‘Calculus’ is from Latin and means a small stone or pebble used for counting. 6 Islamic Influence 19 Cipher Text vxpphu vrovwleh Plaintext: Summer Solstice The encryption may also be represented using modular arithmetic.

Complicated logic circuits may be built up by cascading these switches (switches that control switches that control switches and so on). These logic circuits may be built very compactly on a silicon chip with a density of a million transistors per square centimetre. g. 000000001 s). These electronic chips are at the heart of modern electron devices. D. at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1936, and he joined Bell Labs shortly afterwards. He was involved in radar research and anti-submarine operations research during the Second World War, and after the war he led a research group including Bardeen and Brattan to find a solid-state alternative to the glass-based vacuum tubes (Fig.

The new dam led to a rise in the water level of Lake Nasser and flooding of archaeological sites along the Nile. Several archaeological sites such as Abu Simbel and the temple of Philae were relocated to higher ground. 12 1 Computing in Early Civilisations 3. He assumed that rays of light came from the sun in parallel beams and reached the earth at the same time. 4. 2 south of the zenith. 5. He assumed that Alexandria was directly north of Aswan. 6. 2/360 of the circumference of the earth. 7. Distance between Alexandria and Aswan was 5,000 stadia (approximately 800 km).

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